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ACT was formed in 1994 and has three areas of primary focus: cloning transgenic cows for making human medicines in milk; cloning animals for use in cell and tissue transplants, and cloning human stem cells for medical work.

Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (ACT) is a company engaged in the research and development of technologies enabling the genetic manipulation of cells to produce transgenic animals for pharmaceutical protein production. The Company is also developing transgenic cloned cells and tissues for applications in cell and organ transplant therapy.

The Company's initial focus is on the development of cloned transgenic cows to produce human serum albumin and as donors of neural cells for transplant therapies in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. The Company is also developing transgenic swine for potential application in xenotransplantation.

In addition, ACT is advancing technology to produce primitive human embryonic stem cells through nuclear transfer techniques. Using ACT's technology, production of human embryonic stem cells may overcome two major hurdles in the use of transplanted tissue to treat disease. First, the technique may prevent transplant rejection because the resulting therapeutic tissues are created from a patient's own cells and are therefore genetically identical. Second, ACT's approach may provide an accessible source of cells to meet the demand for large quantities of transplantable tissues.

Nuclear Transfer Technology
The first of the Company's technologies involves transferring a gene of interest into cells in culture to produce cloned animal embryos. Genetically altered nuclei from cultured (laboratory grown) cells are transferred into egg cells from which the nucleus has been removed. The resulting embryos are then implanted in surrogate mothers for normal gestation and birth. The cultured cells can also be genetically modified to introduce useful genes and/or remove undesirable genes prior to producing the cloned embryos, which may simplify and accelerate the production of transgenic animals. ACT was the first to produce transgenic cloned bovine and porcine embryos all derived from differentiated cells. Cloning transgenic porcine embryos for potential use in xenotransplantation is yet another application of the Company's technology.

Research reported in the May 1998 issue of Science, confirmed the success of the method through the birth of two calves born from cloned, transgenic embryos. The calves are the first to be produced from genetically altered somatic cells. Researchers from ACT and the University of Massachusetts contributed to this pioneering discovery.

Below are the pictures of animals cloned at ACT.